The Relationship Between Hotel Brand Personality And Customer Loyalty

Bahar YAŞİN, Kamile Jamontaite, Saida Ahmadova, Selami Akin
283 198

Abstract


The purpose of this article is to explore the relationship between brand personality and customer loyalty in the five-star business hotel and propose an effective way for developing a remarkable hotel brand and improving its customer loyalty. The reason for choosing a particular hotel is that it is a member of a famous international hotel chain with a well-known brand name. According to the literature, business hotels usually have stronger brand names comparing to leisure hotels. Literature review of the problem is presented along with a conceptual framework of brand personality and customer loyalty adopted for hotel industry. Using the data collected from a 5-star business hotel guests, factor analysis and multiple regression analysis were conducted in order to measure the impact of brand personality on customer loyalty. Although brand personality dimensions were similar with Aaker’s (1997) dimensions, “competence” dimension was switched with an “up-to-date” dimension in this new scale. As a result, brand personality has a positive effect on customer loyalty in this study. However, brand personality dimensions cannot be fully implemented and some dimensions are not appropriate for tourism industry. It is suggested that tourism marketing managers should be more focused on features of tourism while creating touristic brand personality.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aaker, J., Benet-Martinez, V. and Garolera, J. (2001). Consumption Symbols as Carriers of Culture: A Study of Japanese and Spanish Brand Personality Constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22(2), 492-508.

Aaker, J. L. (1997). Dimensions of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Research, 34(3), 347-356.

Andreassen, T. and Lindestad, B. (1998). Customer loyalty and complex service, International Journal of Service Industry Management, 9(1), 7-23.

Austin, J., Siguaw, J. and Mattila, A. (2003). A Re-examination of the Generalizability of the Aaker Brand Personality Measurement Framework. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 11(2), 77-92.

Azoulay, A. and Kapferer, J.-N. (2003). Do Brand Personality Scales Really Measure Brand Personality. Brand Management, 11(2), 143-155.

Back, K.-J. and Parks, S. C. (2003). A Brand Loyalty Model Involving Cognitive, Affective, and Conative Brand Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 27(4), 419-435.

Baloglu, S. (2002). Dimensions Of Customer Loyalty: Separating Friends From Well Wishers. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(1), 47-59.

Ben Sliman, S., Ferrandi, J‐M., Merunka, D. and Valette‐Florence, P. (2005). L'influence de la personnalité de la marque sur le comportement du consommateur: modélisation et application à de grandes enseignes d'hypermarchés en France et en Tunisie. CD‐ROM, Proceedings of the 3rd Colloque de l'Association Tunisienne du Marketing, Hammamet, Tunisia, Avril.

Bobalca, C., Gatej, C. and Ciobanu, O. (2012). Developing A Scale To Measure Customer Loyalty. in International Conference Emerging Markets Queries in Finance and Business, 3(3), 623-628.

Bowen, J. and Shoemaker, S. (1998). The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Loyalty. Cornell Hotel Restaurant and Administration Quarterly, 39(1), 12-25.

Butcher, K., Sparks, B. and O’Callaghan, F. (2001). Evaluative and relational influences on service loyalty. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(4), 310–327.

Cai, L. A (2002). Cooperative Branding for Rural Destinations. Annals of Tourism Research, 29(3), 720-742.

Chen, Y., Shen, Y. and Liao, S. (2009). An integrated model of customer loyalty: An empirical examination in retailing practice. The Service Industries Journal, 29(3), 267–280.

Crockett, S. and Wood, L. (1999). Brand Western Australia: a Totally Integrated Approach to Destination Branding. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 5(3), 276-289.

Dick, A. and Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99-113.

Ekinci, Y. and Hosany, S. (2006). Destination Personality: an Application of Brand Personality to Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 45(2), 127-139.

Ekinci, Y., Sirkaya, T. E. and Baloglu, S. (2007). Host Image and Destination Personality. Tourism Analysis, 12(5-6), 433-446.

Evanschitzky, H. and Wunderlich, M. (2006). An Examination of Moderator Effects in the Four-Stage Loyalty Model. Journal of Service Research, 8(4), 330-345.

Ferguson, G., Lau, K. C. and Phau, I. (2016). Brand personality as a direct cause of brand extension success: does self-monitoring matter?. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(5), 343-353.

Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24(4), 343-353.

Getty, J.M. and Thompson, K.N. (1994). The Realtionship Between Quality, Satisfaction, and Recommending Behaviour in Lodging Decision. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 2(3), 3-22.

Geuens, M., Weijters, B. and Wulf, K. D. (2009). A new measure of brand personality. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 26(2), 97-107.

Gremler, D., Gwinner, K. and Brown, S. (2001). Generating positive word-of-mouth communication through customer-employee relationships. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 12(1),44–59.

Griffin, J. (1995). Customer Loyalty: How To Earn It, How To Keep It. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Guenzi, P. and Pelloni, O. (2004). The impact of interpersonal relationships on customer satisfaction and loyalty to the service provider. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 15(4), 365–384.

Guo, L.-J. (2003). The Effects of Personality Trait and Brand Personality on Brand Preference. Graduate Institute of Management Science, 12(1), 35-45

Haghighi, A. M., Baum, T. and Shafti, F. (2014). Dimensions of customer loyalty in hospitality micro-enterprises. The Service Industries Journal, 34(3), 251-273.

Hair, J., Wolfinbarger, M. F., Ortinau, D. J. and Bush, R. P. (2009). Essential of Marketing Research. 2nd Edition. New-York: McGraw-Hill.

Hammond, K., East, R. L. and Ehrenberg, A. (1996). Buying more and buying longer: Concepts and measures of consumer loyalty. London: London Business School.

Helgeson, J. G. and Supphellen, M. (2004). A conceptual and measurement comparison of self-congruity and brand personality-The impact of socially desirable responding. International Journal of Market Research, 46(2), 205-233.

Henderson, J. (2007). Uniquely Singapore? A Case Study in Destination Branding. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 13(3), 261-274.

Hochgraefe, C., Faulk, S. and Vieregge, M. (2012). Links Between Swiss Hotel Guests’ Product Involvement and Brand Loyalty. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 21(1), 20–39.

Horwath HTL (2015). “Special Market Reports – Turkey”. Retrieved from http://horwathhtl.com/files/2015/10/MR47_Turkey.pdf 11.05.2016

Hosany, S., Ekinci, Y. and Uysal, M. (2007). Destination image and destination personality. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 1(1), 62-81.

Hsu, C. H. C. (2014). Brand Evaluation of Foreign versus Domestic Luxury Hotels by Chinese Travelers. Journal of China Tourism Research, 10(1), 35-50.

Huang, Z. and Cai, L. A. (2014). Chinese Hotel Branding: An Emerging Research Agenda. Journal of China Tourism Research, 10(1), 1-3.

Hultman, M., Dionysis, S. and Oghazi, P. (2015). Achieving Tourist Loyalty Through Destination Personality, Satisfaction, And Identification. Journal of Business Research, 68(11), 2227-2231.

Imrak, S. (2015). Marka Kisiliginin; Marka Imaji, Genel Memnuniyet Ve Sadakat Üzerindeki Etkisi Ve Cam Ev Esyasi Sektoru Uzerine Bir Arastirma. Gazi Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 2(3), 91-104.

Jacob, J. and Chestnut, R. W. (1978). Brand Loyalty, Measurement and Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Jones, T. O. and Sasser, W. E. (1995). Why satisfied customers defect. Harvard Business Review, (73), 88–99.

Kalaycı, S. (2014). SPSS Uygulamali Cok Degiskenli Istatistik Teknikleri. Ankara: Asil Yayın Dağıtım.

Kandampully, J. and Suhartano, D. (2000). Customer Loyalty in the Hotel Industry: The Role of Customer Satisfaction and Image. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 12(6), 346-351.

Karjaluoto, H., Munnukka, J. and Salmi, M. (2015). How do brand personality, identification, and relationship length drive loyalty in sports?. Journal of Service Theory and Practice, 26(1), 50-71.

Keng , C.-J., Tran, V.-D. and Thi, T. M. L. (2013). Relationships among Brand Experience, Brand Personality And Customer Experiential Value. Contemporary Management Research, 9(3), 247-262.

Kim, D., Magnini, V. and Signal, M. (2011). The Effects Of Consumers' Perceptions Of Brand Personality In Casual Theme Restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(2), 448-458.

Kim, M., Vogt, C. A. and Knutson, B. J. (2015). Relationships Among Customer Satisfaction, Delight, And Loyalty In The Hospitality Industry. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 39(2), 170-197.

Klipfel, J. A. L., Barclay, A. C. and Bockorny, K. M. (2014). Self-Congruity: A Determinant of Brand Personality. Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, 8(3), 130-143.

Kurtulus, S. D. (2008). Ulkelerin Marka Kisiligi Uzerine Bir Arastirma. Ataturk Universitesi Iktisadi ve Idari Bilimler Dergisi, 22(2), 285-300.

Lada, S., Sidin, S. and Cheng, K. T. G. (2014). Moderating role of product involvement on the relationship between brand personality and brand loyalty. Journal of Internet Banking and Commerce, 19(2), 1-16.

La, S. and Yi, Y. (2004). What influences the relationship between customer satisfaction and repurchase. Psychology & Marketing, (21), 351-373.

Lee, J. and Back, K. (2010). Examining Antecedents and Consequences of Brand Personality in the Upper-Scale Business Hotel Segment. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 27(2), 132-145.

Lin, L.-Y. (2010). The Relationship Of Consumer Personality Trait, Brand Personality And Brand Loyalty: An Empirical Study Of Toys And Video Games Buyers. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 19(1), 4-17.

Li, X. and Petrick, J. F. (2008). Examining The Antecedents Of Brand Loyalty From An Investment Model Perspective. Journal of Travel Research, (47), 25-34.

Li, X., Yen, C.-L. and Uysal, M. (2014). Differentiating With Brand Personality In Economy Hotel Segment. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 20(4), 323–333.

Loveman, G. (1998). Employee Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, And Financial Performance. Journal of Service Research, 1(1), 18-31.

Malhotra, N. K. (2010). Marketing Research - An Applied Orientation. Sixth Edition. New Jersey: Pearson.

Matzler, K., Mooradian, T. A. and Bauer, F. A. (2015). Self-Esteem And Transformational Leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(7), 815-831.

Mazanec, J. A. (1995). Positioning Analysis With Self-Organizing Maps: An Explanatory Study On Luxury Hotels. Cornell H.R.A. Quarterly, 36(6), 80-92.

McMullan, R., (2005). A Multiple-Item Scale For Measuring Customer Loyalty Development. Journal of Services Marketing, 19(7), 470-481.

McMullan, R. and Gilmore, A. (2003). The Conceptual Development Of Customer Loyalty Measurement: A Proposed Scale. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 11(3), 230-243.

Morais, D. B., Dorsch, M. J. and Backman, S. J. (2004). Can Tourism Providers Buy Their Customers’ Loyalty? Examining The Influence Of Customer-Provider Investments On Loyalty. Journal of Travel Research, (42), 235-243.

Morschett Dirk, Z. J. and Schramm-Klein, H. (2008). Brand Personality Of Retailers–An Analysis Of Its Applicability And Its Effect On Store Loyalty. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 18(2), 167-184.

Murase, H. and Bojanic, D. (2004). An Examination of the Differences in Restaurant Brand Personality Across Cultures. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 11(2-3), 97-113.

Murphy, L., Moscovado, G. and Benckendorff, P. (2007). Using Brand Personality to Differentiate Regional Tourism Destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 419-432.

Nakip, M. (2013). Pazarlamada Araştırma Teknikleri: SPSS Uygulamalı. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.

Nam, J., Ekici, Y. and Whyatt, G. (2011). Brand Equity, Brand Loyalty, and Customer Satisfaction. Annals of Tourism Research, 38(3), 1009-1030.

Nguyen, T. T. and Thuy, Q. T. (2016). An Analysis Of Brand Personality On Brand Loyalty In Frozen Seafood Supermarkets In Ho Chi Minh City. Journal of Aquaculture Research and Development, 7(3), 1-8.

O’Neill, J. W. and Xiao, Q. (2006). The Role Of Brand Affiliation In Hotel Market Value. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 47(3), 210-223.

Oliver, R. (1999). Whence Customer Loyalty?. Journal of Marketing, 63, 33-44.

Oliver, R. L. (1997). Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. New York: Irwin-McGraw-Hill.

Ozer, G. and Aydin, S. (2005). The Analysis Of Antecedents Of Customer Loyalty In The Turkish Mobile Telecommunication Market. European Journal of Marketing, 39(7/8), 910-925.

Ozgun, H. O., 2010. Marka kişiliği ve imajının tüketicinin satın alma karar sürecindeki rolü: Bir uygulama, Yüksek Lisans Tezi. Ege Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü İşletme Anabilim Dalı Pazarlama Programı.

Parasuraman, A., Zeithalm, V. A. and Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A Multiple-Item Scale for Measuring Consumer Perceptions of Service Quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-37.

Park, J. and Chung, S. (2015). The Influence Of Brand Personality And Relative Brand Identification On Brand Loyalty In The European Mobile Phone Market. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 1-16.

Pereira, R., Correia, A. and Schutz, R. (2015). Golf Destinations’ Brand Personality: The Case Of The Algarve. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 133-153.

Prayag, G. (2007). Exploring The Relationship Between Destination Image And Brand Personality Of A Tourist Destination: An Application Of Projective Techniques. Journal of Travel & Tourism research, 111-130.

Reichheld, F. F. and Sasser, W. (1990). Zero Defections: Quality Comes to Services. Harvard Business Review, 68(5), 105-109.

Roustasekehravani, A., Abdul Hamid, A. B. and Abdul Hamid, A. (2015). The Effect of Brand Personality and Brand Satisfaction on Brand Loyalty: A Conceptual Paper. Journal of Management Research, 7(2), 10-26.

Sambandam, R. and Lord, K. A. (1995). Switching Behavior in Automobile Markets: A Consideration-Sets Model. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23(1), 57-65.

Seimiene, E. (2012). Emotional Connection Of Consumer Personality Traits With Brand Personality Traits: Theoretical Considerations. Economics And Management, 17(4), 1472-1478.

Shoemaker, S. and Lewis, R. C. (1999). Customer Loyalty: the Future of Hospitality Marketing. Hospitality Management, 18(4), 345-370.

Siguaw, J. A., Mattila, A. S. and Austin, J. (1999). The Brand Personality Scale: An Application for Restaurants. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 40(3), 48-55.

Soderlund, M. (2002). Customer familiarity and its effects on satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Psychology & Marketing, 19(10), 861–879.

Sun, X., Wnag, P., Lepp, A. and Robertson, L. (2014). Symbolic Consuption and Brand Choice: Chinas Youth Hostels for the International Travel Market. Journal of China Tourism Research, 10(1), 51-68.

Tran, X., Dauchez, C. and Szemik, A.-M. (2013). Hotel Brand Personality And Brand Quality. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 19(4), 329–341.

Usakli, A. and Baloglu, S. (2014). Brand Personality Of Tourist Destinations: An Application Of Self-Congruity Theory. Tourism Management, 32(1), 114-127.

Uncles, M., Grahame, . R. and Hammond, K. (2003). Customer loyalty and customer loyalty programs. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 20(4), 294–316.

UNWTO, (2016). UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. Retrieved from

available at: http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/ files/pdf/unwto_barom16_03_may_excerpt_.pdf 15.5.2016

Xiangping, L., Li, X., Yen, C.-L. and Uysal, M. (2014). Differentiating with Brand Personality in Economy Hotel Segment. Journal of Vacational Marketing, 20(4), 323-333.

Yuksel, F. and Bilim, Y. (2009). Interactions Between Visual Appeals, Holiday Motivations, Destination Personality and the Self- Image: Implications for Destination Advertising. Journal of Travel & Tourism Research, 2009, 75-104.

Zeithaml, V., Berry, L. and Parasuraman, A. (1996). The Behavioral Consequences of Service Quality. The Journal of Marketing, 60(2), 31-46.

Zentes, J., Morschett, D. and Schramm-Klein, H. (2008). Brand Personality Of Retailers – An Analysis Of Its Applicability And Its Effect On Store Loyalty. The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research, 18(2), 167-184.

Zhou, K. Z., Brown, J. R. and Dev, C. S. (2009). Market Orientation, Competitive Advantage, And Performance: A Demand-Based Perspective. Journal of Business Research, 62(11), 1063-1070.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.