PAZARLAMA İLETİŞİMİ ARACI OLARAK ÜRÜN YERLEŞTİRME: KAVRAMSAL BİR ÇERÇEVE
Ürün yerleştirme, temelde farkındalık yaratma ve bunu arttırma çabasına yönelik olarak markaların bir bedel karşılığında çeşitli medya mecralarına yerleştirilmesidir. Ülkemizde reklam sektöründe henüz yeni ivme kazanmış bir uygulama olan ürün yerleştirmenin etkileri üzerine gerçekleştirilmiş keşfedici, tanımlayıcı ve deneysel çalışmalar literatürde yer almaktadır. Bu çalışmada, ürün yerleştirme konusunda geçmişten günümüze yapılmış olan çalışmalar pazarlama literatürüne katkıları ve sektörel bazda faydaları açısından ele alınmıştır. Ürün yerleştirme konusundaki araştırmalar, bilişsel düzeyde ve tüketici tutumlarına etkileri dâhilinde; tüketici özellikleri, ürün grupları ve ürün yerleştirme türü gibi farklı anahtar faktörlere göre sınıflandırılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda çalışmaların yoğunlaştığı kritik noktalar belirlenmiş ve bu etkenler çerçevesinde hem geleceğe dönük olarak akademik çalışmalara hem de pratikte uygulayıcılara yönelik gerçekleştirilebilecek araştırmalara dair önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
ARGAN, M., NURTANIŞ VELİOĞLU, M., TOKAY ARGAN, M., 2007, “Marka
Yerleştirme Stratejilerinin Hatırlama Üzerine Etkisi: ‘GORA’ Filmi Üzerine Araştırma”, Elektronik Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, Vol. 6, No. 19, s:159-178. AUTY, S., LEWIS C., 2004, “Exploring Children’s Choice: The Reminder Effect of
Product Placement”, Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 9, s:697-713. BABIN, L.A., CARDER S.T., 1996a, “Viewers’ Recognition of Brands Placed
Within a Film”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 15, No. 2, s:140-151. BABIN, L.A., CARDER S.T., 1996b, “Advertising via the Box Office? Is Product
Placement Effective?”, Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 3, No. 1/2, s:31 BAKER, M.J., CRAWFORD H.A., 1995, “Product Placement”, Working paper no. 95(2), Department of Marketing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland.
BALASUBRAMANIAN, S.K., 1994, “Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid
Messages and Public Policy Issues”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 23, No. 4, s:29 BALASUBRAMANIAN, S.K., KARRH J.A., PATWARDHAN H., 2006, “Audience Response to Product Placements: an Integrative Framework and Future
Research Agenda”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 35, No. 3, s:115-141. BANERJEE, S., 2009, “Marketing Communication through Brand Placement: a
Strategic Roadmap”, Journal of Marketing & Communication, Vol. 5, No. 2, s:4 BHATNAGAR, N., AKSOY, L., MALKOC, S.A., 2004, “Embedding Brands within
Media Content: the Impact of Message, Media, and Consumer Characteristics on Placement Efficiency”, The Psychology of Entertainment Media içinde. L.J. Shrum, ed., Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, s:99–116. BRENNAN, S., ROSENBERGER III, P.J., HEMENTERA, V., 2004, “Product
Placements in Movies: an Australian Consumer Perspective on Their Ethicality and Acceptability”, Marketing Bulletin, Vol. 15, s:1-16. BRENNAN, I., DUBAS, K.M., BABIN, L.A., 1999, “The Influence of ProductPlacement Type and Exposure Time on Product-Placement Recognition”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 18, No. 3, s:323-337.
BROWN, R., 1958, “Words and Things”, New York: The Free Press.
COWLEY, E., BARRON C., 2008, “When Product Placement Goes Wrong: The Effects of Program Liking and Placement Prominence”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 37, No. 1, s:89-98.
D’ASTOUS, A., CHARTIER F., 2000, “a Study of Factors Affecting Consumer
Evaluations and Memory of Product Placements in Movies”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 22, No. 2, s:31-40. D’ASTOUS, A., SEGUIN, N., 1999, “Consumer Reactions to Product Placement in
Television Sponsorship”, European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 33, No. 9/10, s:8969
DeGREGORIO, F., SUNG, Y., 2010, “Understanding Attitudes toward and Behaviours in Response to Product Placement: a Consumer Socialization
Framework”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 39, No. 1, s:83-96. DeLORME, D.E., REID L.N., 1999, “Moviegoers’ Experiences And Interpretations of Brands in Films Revisited”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 28, No.2, s:71-95.
DeLORME, D.E., REID L.N., ZIMMER M. R., 1994, “Brands in Films: Young
Moviegoers’ Experiences and Interpretations”, Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, Athens.
GOULD, S.J., GUPTA, P.B., GRABNER-KRAUTER, S., 2000, “Product
Placement in Movies: a Cross-Cultural Analysis of Austrian, French and American Consumers’ Attitudes Toward This Emerging International Promotional Medium”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 29, No. 4, s:41-58. GUIDO, G., PELUSO, A.M., TEDESCHI, P., NICOLE, C., LAURETTI, C., CACIULA, A., 2010, “Acceptance of Product Placement in Italy: Effects of
Personality and Product/Consumer Interactions”, International Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, s:34-46. GUPTA, P.B., LORD, K.R., 1998, “Product Placement in Movies: The Effect of
Prominence and Mode on Audience Recall”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 20, No. 1, s:47-59. GUPTA, P.B., BALASUBRAMANIAN, S.K., KLASSEN, M.L., 2000, “Viewers’evaluation in Movies: Public Policy Issues and Managerial
Implications”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 22, No. 2, s:41-52. GUPTA, P.B., GOULD, S.J., 1997, “Consumer Perceptions of the Ethics and Acceptability of Product Placement in Movies: Product Category and Individual
Differences”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 19, No. 1, s:37-50. HOMER, P.M, 2009, “Product Placements: The Impact of Placement Type and Repetition on Attitude”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 38, No. 3, s:21-31.
HUDSON, S., HUDSON, D., 2006, “Branded Entertainment: a New Advertising
Technique or Product Placement in Disguise?”, Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 22, No. 5/6, s:489-504. JIN, C., VILLEGAS, J., 2007, “The Effect of the Placement of the Product in Film: Consumers’ Emotional Responses to Humorous Stimuli and Prior Brand
Evaluation”, Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, Vol. 15, No. 4, s:244-255. JOHNSTONE, E., DODD, C.A., 2000, “Placements as Mediators of Brand Salience within UK Cinema Audience”, Journal of Marketing Communications, Vol. 6, No. 3, s:141-158.
JUHL, J.K., 2006, The Effectiveness of Product Placement in Video Games, Master's thesis, School of Management, University of Bath, UK.
KARRH, J.A., McKEE K.B., PARDUN, C.J., 2003, “Practitioners’ Evolving Views on Product Placement Effectiveness”, Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 2, s:138-149.
KARRH, J.A., FRITH, K.T, CALLISON, C., 2001, “Audience Attitudes Towards
Brand (Product) Placement: Singapore and the United States”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 20, No. 1, s:3-24. KARRH, J.A., 1998, “Brand Placement: a Review”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 20, No. 2, s:31-49.
KARRH, J.A., 1995, “Brand Placements in Feature Films: The Practitioners’
View”, Proceedings of the 1995 Conference of the American Academy of
Advertising, Charles S. Madden, ed., Waco: TX, Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, s:182-188. KARRH, J.A, 1994, “Effects of Brand Placement in Motion Pictures”, Proceedings of the 1994 American Academy of Advertising Conference, Karen W. King, ed., Athens, GA: Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, s:90KURESHI, S., SOOD, V., 2010, “A Review of Placement Literature: Conceptual and Managerial Implications”, IUP Journal Of Marketing Management, Vol. 9, No. 1/2, s:23-39.
LAW, S., BRAUN, K.A., 2000, “I’ll Have What She’s Having: Gauging the Impact of Product Placements on Viewers”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 17, No. 12, s:1059-1075.
MATTHES, J., SCHEMER, C., WIRTH, W., 2007, “More Than Meets the Eye: Investigating The Hidden Impact of Brand Placements in Television Magazines”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 26, No. 4, s:477-503.
MCKECHNIE, J.A., THOU, S., 2003, “Product Placement in Movies: a Comparison of Chinese and American Consumers’ Attitudes”, International Journal of
Advertising, Vol. 22, No. 3, s:349-374. MORTON, C. R., FRIEDMAN M., 2002, “I Saw it in the Movies: Exploring the Link
Between Product Placement Beliefs and Reported Usage Behavior”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 2, s:33-40. NEBENZAHL, I.D, SECUNDA, E., 1993, “Consumer Attitudes toward Product
Placement in Movies”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 12, No. 1, s:1-11. NELSON, M.R., DEVANATHAN, N., 2006, “Brand Placements Bollywood Style”, Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Vol. 5, No. 3, s:211-221.
NELSON, M.R., KEUM, H., YAROS, R.A., 2004, “Advertainment or Adcreep?
Game Players’ Attitudes Toward Advertising and Product Placements in Computer Games”, Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 5, No. 1, http://jiad.org/ article52, (002011).
NELSON, M.R., McLEOD, L.E., 2005, “Adolescent Brand Consciousness and Product Placements: Awareness, Liking and Perceived Effects on Self and Others”, International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 29, No. 6, s:515-528.
OLIVER, B., 1986, “The Latest Screen Stars”, Marketing, (March), s:38-39.
ONG, B.S., MERI, D., 1994, “Should Product Placement in Movies Be Banned?”, Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 2, No. 3/4, s:159-175.
PARDUN, C.J., McKEE, K.B., 1999, “Product Placements as Public Relations: an
Exploratory Study of the Role of the Public Relations Firm”, Public Relations Review, Vol. 25, No. 4, s:481-493. PERCY, L., ROSSITER, J.R., ELLIOT, R., 2004, “Strategic Advertising
Management”, Oxford University Press, New York. RADYO TELEVİZYON ÜST KURULU, “6112 Sayılı Radyo ve Televizyonların
Kuruluş ve Yayın Hizmetleri Hakkında Kanun”, http://www.rtuk.org.tr/sayfalar/IcerikGoster.aspx? icerik_id=5a3cac1e-b6d9-4b23bc7a-8dcd671fceba (15.04.2011).
RUSSELL, C.A., STERN, B.B., 2006, “Consumers, Characters, and Products: a
Balance Model of Sitcom Product Placement Effects”, Journal of Advertising, Vol. 35, No. 1, s:7-21. RUSSELL, C.A., 1998, “Toward a Framework of Product Placement: Theoretical
Propositions”, Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 25, No. 1, s:357-362. RUSSELL, C.A., 2002, “Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in
Television Shows: the Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 29, No. 3, s:306-318. RUSSELL, C.A., NORMAN, A.T., HECKLER, S.E., 2004, “The Consumption of
Television Programming: Development and Validation of the Connectedness Scale”, Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 31, No. 2, s:150–161. SABERWAHL, S., POKRYWCZYNSKI, J., GRIFFIN, R., 1994, “Brand Recall For
Product Placements in Motion Pictures: a Memory-Based Perspective”, paper presented at the 1994 Conference of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Atlanta, GA.
SCHMOLL, N.M., HAFER J., HILT, M., REILLY, H., 2006, “Baby Boomers’
Attitudes Towards Product Placements”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 28, No. 2, s:33-53. SCHNEIDER, L.P., 2005, “Cashing in on Crashes via Brand Placement in
Computer Games”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 3, s:321–343. SHAPIRO, M., 1993, “Product Placement in Motion Pictures”, Working paper, North Western University, NY.
SHEEHAN, K.B., GUO, A., 2005, “Leaving on a (Branded) Jet Plane: an
Exploration of Audience Attitudes Towards Product Assimilation in Television Content”, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 27, No. 1, s:79STEORTZ, E., 1987, “The Cost Efficiency and Communication Effects Associated with Brand Name Exposure within Motion Pictures”, Master's thesis, West Virginia
University, Morgantown, WV. SUNG, Y., DeGREGORIO, F., JUNG, J.H., 2009, “Non-Student Consumer Attitudes
Towards Product Placement: Implications for Public Policy and Advertisers”, International Journal of Advertising, 28, No. 2, s:257-285. TIWSAKUL, R., HACKLEY, C. , SZMIGIN, I., 2005, “Explicit, Non-Integrated
Product Placement in British Television Programmes”, International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 24, No. 1, s:95-111. TOKGÖZ, A., 2009, “Tüketicilerin Sinema Filmlerindeki Ürün Yerleştirmelere
İlişkin Tutumlarına Yönelik Bir Araştırma”, Yayınlanmamış Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ege Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, İzmir. TSAI, M.T., LIANG, W.K., LIU, M.L., 2007, “The Effects of Subliminal Advertising on Consumer Attitudes and Buying İntentions”, International Journal of
Management, Vol. 24, No. 1, s:3-14. UNCLES, M.D., DOWLING, G.R., HAMMOND, K., 2003, “Customer Loyalty and Customer Loyalty Programs”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 4, s:294-316.
VAN REIJMERSDAL, E., NEIJENS P.C., SMIT, E.G., 2007, “Effects of Television
Brand Placement on Brand İmage”, Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 24, No. 5, s:4034
VOLLMERS, S., MIZERSKI, R., 1994, “A Review and Investigation into the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Films”, Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, Karen Whitehill King, ed., Athens, GA: Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication, University of Georgia, s:97-102.
VOLLMERS, S.M., 1995, “The Impact on Children of Brand and Product
Placements in Films”, Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi, Florida State University, Tallahassee. YANG, M., ROSKOS-EWOLDSEN D.R., 2007, “The Effectiveness of Brand
Placements in the Movies: Levels of Placements, Explicit and Implicit Memory, and Brand-Choice Behavior”, Journal of Communication, Vol. 57, No. 3, s:469-489. ZIMMER, M.R., DeLORME, D., 1997, “The Effects of Brand Placement Type and a
Disclaimer on Memory for Brand Placements in Movies”, Paper presented at 1997
Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Conference, Chicago. CHANGINGMINDS, http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/attitude.htm, (00 2011).