Kayıp ve Yas Sürecinde Kardeşler

Gizem KERİMOĞLU YILDIZ, Serap BALCI
1.514 360

Öz


ÖZET Çocuklar için ölüm, kavranması ve kabullenilmesi zor bir durumdur. Bu nedenle çocukların ölüme ver-dikleri yas tepkisi, yaş gruplarına ve içinde bulundukları kültüre göre farklı şekillerde yaşanabilir. Kardeşin ölümü ise yaşayan kardeş üzerinde derin bir etki bırakabilir ve çocuğun yaşamını geri dönüşsüz bir şekilde değiştirebilir. Kardeşin ölümü nedeniyle yaşanan yas tepkileri sıklıkla uzun bir zaman sürecinde yaşanan büyük üzüntüyü ve depresyonu içerebilir. Bu deneyimi yaşayan çocuklar, özellikle hastalığın oluştuğu ve ölümün beklendiği süreçte ebeveynlerin de kendi yas süreçlerine odaklanmalarından dolayı, aileden sınırlı destek alabilir, daha az iletişim kurabilirler ya da ihmale uğrayabilir ve görünmez olduklarını hissedebilirler. Bu durum onların korku, öfke, ank-siyete ya da depresyon yaşamalarına neden olabilir. Hemşireler, hastalık sürecinin her aşamasında aile, hasta çocuk ve kardeşle iletişim halinde olmaları nedeniyle kardeşlerinin ölümünü yaşayan çocukları desteklemede, sağlık per-sonelleri arasında önemli bir role sahiptir. Hemşire, yas sürecindeki ebeveynlere ve kardeşlere vereceği eğitim ve uygun yaklaşımla yas sürecini uyumlu bir şekilde yaşayabilmelerine destek olabilir ve uyumsuz yas süreci yaşayan ebeveynleri ve çocukları erken dönemde fark edip, girişimlerini buna göre planlamalıdır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Yas süreci, kardeş, hemşire

 

ABSTRACT Death is a hard situation to understand and accept for children. Therefore the grieving reaction of children in death situation may be different regarding to age group or cultural back ground of children. Death of a sibling may make a profound impact to the living sibling and may make irreversible changes in the living sibling’s life. Grieving reactions which are caused by the death of siblings can commonly cause major sorrow and depres-sion. Children who experienced this situation can get less support from their parents because of parents’ own grief or they can communicate less and may feel neglected and invisible. This situation may cause them to feel frighte-ned, angry, anxious and depressed. Nurses have an important role among the other health care professionals to support the children who experienced sibling’s death because nurses are always in touch with parents, sick children and their siblings at every stages of disease process. Nurse can support parents and siblings to live their grief process in a harmonius way by appropriate approach and education or nurses may notice earlier parents and sib-lings who are living the grief process inappropriately and should plan the nursing interventions according to them.
Keywords: Process of grieving, sibling, nurse.


Anahtar kelimeler


Yas süreci; Kardeş; Hemşire

Tam metin:

PDF


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17681/hsp.11417

Referanslar


Ak B. Kronik ve Yaşamı Tehdit Edici/ Ölümcül Hastalığı olan çocuk ve Hemşirelik Bakımı. Conk Z, Başbakkal Z, Bal Yılmaz H ve Bolışık B. Editörler. Pediatri Hemşireliği. 1.Baskı. Ankara: Akademisyen Tıp Kitabevi; 2013. p.905-22.

Auman MJ. Bereavement support for children. Journal of School Nursing (Allen Press) 2007; 23(1):34–9.

Busch T, Kimble CS. Grieving children: are we meeting the challenge? Pediatric Nursing 2001; 27(4):414–18.

Chow A. Developing emotional competence of social workers of end-of-life and bereavement care. British Journal of Social Work 2013; 43: 373–93.

Chowns G. ‘Until it ends, you never know ...’: attending to the voice of adolescents who are facing the likely death of a parent. Cruse Bereavement Care 2013; 32: 23–30.

Clute MA, Kobayashi R. Are children’s grief camps effective? Journal of Social Work End-of-Life Palliative Care 2013; 9: 43–57.

Clements PT, Weisser SM. Cries from the morgue. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 2003; 16(4): 153–61

Cowles KV, Rodgers BL. The concept of grief: a foundation for nursing research and practice. Research in Nursing and Health. 1991; 14(2): 119-27

deCinque N, Monterosso N, Dadd L, Sidhu G, Macpherson R, Aoun S. Bereavement support for families following the death of a child from cancer: experience of bereaved parents. Journal of Psychosocial Oncology 2006; 24(2): 65-84.

Dyregrov K, Dyregrov A. Siblings after suicide V‘‘The forgotten bereaved.’’ Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 2005; 35(6):714-24.

Eilegard A, Steineck G, Nyberg T, Kreicbergs U. Psychological health in siblings who lost a brother or sister to cancer 2 to 9 years earlier. Psychooncology 2013; 22:683-91.

Eilertsen MB, Eilegard A, Steineck G, Nyberg T, Kreicbergs U. Impact of social support on bereaved siblings’ anxiety: a nationwide follow-up. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2013; 30:301–10.

Fletcher J, Mailick M, Song J, Wolfe B. A sibling death in the family: common and consequential. Demography 2013; 50: 803–26.

Forward DR, Garlie N. Search for new meaning: adolescent bereavement after the sudden death of a sibling. Canadian Journal of School Psychology 2003; 18(1-2):23-53.

Foster TL, Gilmer MJ, Vannatta K, Barrera M, Davies B, Dietrich MS, et al. Changes in siblings after the death of a child from cancer Cancer Nursing 2012; 35: 347-54.

Gerhardt CA, Fairclough DL, Grossenbacher JC, Barrera M, Gilmer MJ, Foster TL, et al. Peer relationships of bereaved siblings and comparison classmates after a child’s death from cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2012; 37: 209-19.

Gibbons MB. A child dies, a child survives: the impact of sibling loss. Journal of Pediatric Health Care 1992; 6(2):65–72.

Giovanola J. Siblings’ involvement at the end of life. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2005; 22: 222-26.

Golby BJ. Parenting with chronic cancer: a relational perspective. Social Work in Healthcare 2014; 53: 48–58.

Grenklo TB, Kreickbergs U, Valdimarsdottir UA, Nyberg T, Steineck G, Fürst CJ. Self-injury in youths who lost a parent to cancer: nationwide study of the impact of family-related and health-care-related factors. Psychooncology 2014; 23: 989–97.

Hagan M, Roubinov D, Gress-Smith J, Luecken LJ, Sandler IN, Wolchik S. Positive parenting during childhood moderates the impact of recent negative events on cortisol activity in parentally bereaved youth. Psychopharmacology 2011; 214: 231–8.

Hamama R, Ronen T, Feigin R. Self-control, anxiety, and loneliness in siblings of children with cancer. Social Work in Health Care 2000; 31(1):63–83.

Hames CC. Helping infants and toddlers when a family member dies. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing 2003; 5(2):103–110.

Hutton CJ, Bradley BS. Effects of sudden infant death on bereaved siblings: a comparative study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1994; 35(4): 723-32.

Kaplow JB, Shapiro DN, Wardecker BM. Psychological and environmental correlates of HPA axis functioning in parentally bereaved children: preliminary findings. Journal of Traumatic Stress 2013; 26: 233–40.

Keeley MP, Generous MA. Advice from children and adolescents on final conversations with dying loved ones. Death Studies 2014; 38: 308–14.

Kirwin KM, Hamrin V. Decreasing the risk of complicated bereavement and future psychiatric disorders in children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 2005; 18(2): 62–78.

Labay LE, Walco GA. Brief report: empathy and psychological adjustment in siblings of children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology 2004; 29(4):309–14.

Machajewski V, Kronk R. Childhood grief related to the death of a sibling. Journal of Nurse Practitioners 2013; 9:443–8.

Mahon MM, Page ML. Childhood bereavement after the death of a sibling. Holistic Nursing Practice 1995; 9(3):15-26.

Martinson IM, Campos RG. Adolescent bereavement: long-term responses to a sibling’s death from cancer. Journal of Adolescent Research 1991; 6: 54-69.

McClatchey SI, Wimmer JS. Coping with parental death as seen from the perspective of children who attended a grief camp. Quantitative Social Work 2014; 13: 221–36.

McCown D, Davies B. Patterns of grief in young children following the death of a sibling. Death Studies 1995; 19(1):41-53.

Möller M, Barkmann C, Krattenmacher T, Kühne F, Bergelt C, Beierlein V, et al. Children of cancer patients: prevalence and predictors of emotional and behavior problems. Cancer 2014; 120: 2361–70.

Nolbris MJ, Ahlstrom BH. Siblings of children with cancer – their experiences of participating in a person-centered support intervention combining education, learning and reflection: pre- and post-intervention interviews. European Journal of Oncology Nursing 2014; 18: 254–60.

Nolbris M, Hellstrom AL. Siblings’ needs and issues when a brother or sister dies of cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2005; 22(4):227- 33.

Noppe IC, Noppe LD. Adolescent experiences with death: letting go of immortality. Journal of Mental Health Counseling 2004; 26(2):146-67.

Öz, F. Sağlık Alanına İlişkin Temel Kavramlar. 2. Baskı. Ankara: Mattek Matbaacılık. 2010. p. 233-9.

Packman W, Horsley H, Davies B, Kramer R. Sibling bereavement and continuing bonds. Death Studies 2006; 30(9): 817-41.

Price J, Jordan J, Prior P. A consensus for change: parent and Professional perspectives on care for children at the end-of-life. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 2013; 36:70–87.

Rosenberg AR, Baker KS, Syrjala K, Wolfe J. Systematic review of psychosocial morbidities among bereaved parents of children with cancer. Pediatric Blood and Cancer 2012; 58:503-12.

Seven S. Çocuk Ruh Sağlığı. 3. Baskı. Ankara: Pegem Akademi. 2013; p. 160-9.

Shapiro DN, Howell KH, Kaplow JB. Associations among mother–child communication quality, childhood maladaptive grief, and depressive symptoms. Death Studies 2014; 38:172–8.

Sidhu R, Passmore A, Baker D. An investigation into parent perceptions of the needs of siblings of children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2005; 22(5): 276–87.

Silverman PR, Baker J, Cait C, Boerner K. The effects of negative legacies on the adjustment of parentally bereaved children and adolescents. Omega Journal of Death and Dying 2003; 46: 335-52.

Sloper P. Experiences and support needs of siblings of children with cancer. Health and Social Care in the Community 2000; 8(5): 298–306.

Spuij M, van Londen-Huiberts A, Boelen PA. Cognitive-behavioral therapy for prolonged grief in children: feasibility and multiple baseline study. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice 2013; 20: 349–61.

Stormshak EA, Bullock BM, Falkenstein CA. Harnessing the power of sibling relationships as a tool for optimizing social-emotional development. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development 2009; 126:61-77.

Thastum M, Johansen MB, Gubba L, Olesen LB, Romer G. Coping, social relations, and communication: a qualitative exploratory study of children of parents with cancer. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2008; 13:123–38.

Torbic H. Children and grief: but what about the children? Home Healthcare Nurse 2011; 29(2): 67–79.

Turner J, Clavarino A, Yates P, Hargraves M, Connors V, Hausmann S. Development of a resource for parents with advanced cancer: what do parents want? Palliative Support Care 2007; 5:135–45.

Warnick A. Supporting youth grieving the dying or death of a sibling or parent: considerations for parents, professionals, and communities. Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care 2015; 9: 58–63.

Wilkins KL, Woodgate RL. A review of the qualitative research of the childhood cancer experience from the perspective of the siblings: a need to give them a voice. Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing 2005; 22: 305–19.

Willis C. The grieving process in children: strategies for understanding, educating, and reconciling children’s perceptions of death. Early Childhood Education Journal 2002; 29(4):221-6.

Wong TML, Branje SJT, Vander Valk IE, Hawk ST, Meeus WHJ. The role of siblings in identity development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Journal of Adolescence 2010; 33(5): 673-682.

Woodgate RL. Siblings’ experiences with childhood cancer: a different way of being in the family. Cancer Nursing 2006; 29(5): 406-414.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

SAĞLIK BİLİMLERİ VE MESLEKLERİ DERGİSİ

JOURNAL OF HEALTH SCIENCES AND PROFESSIONS

ISSN: 2148-7588