Teuta Pustina-Krasniqi, Edit Xhajanka, Nexhmije Ajeti, Teuta Bicaj, Linda Dula, Zana Lila


Purpose: Tooth shade is one of the most important factors in dental and facial aesthetics. The purpose of this study was the determination of tooth shades of the upper frontal teeth in subjects and their comparison with different skin and eye color.

Materials and methods: Subjects’ tooth color measurements were determined using an intraoral spectrophotometer Vita Easyshade® (Vita Zahnfabrik. H Rauter GmbH & Co. KG. Bad Sackingen. Germany). The measurements were made in 255 patients in the intercanine sector of maxilla. The color of skin and eyes were determined by visual perception. The shades of the Vita Tooth Guide 3D Master (Vita Zahnfabrik, H Rauter GmbH & Co, KG, Bad Sackingen, Germany) were registered by the spectrophotometer. The Pearson Chi-square test was used to observe the differences between tooth color, and skin and eye color.

Results: In the central incisors the most frequent shade registered was 2M1 in 62 subjects (8.10%), in lateral incisors 1.5M1.5 in 65 (8.50%), and in canines 2M3 in 142 subjects (18.56%). The Pearson Chi-square test results showed that there was a significant statistical difference in relation of central incisors to skin and eye color (p<0.01; p<0.001); in lateral incisors p<0.001, and in canines p<0.001 (p=0.001). On the other hand, in the relation of lateral incisors and canines to eye color (p>0.05) the significant statistical difference was not observed.

Conclusion: The skin and eye color significantly correlate with the tooth color, except in the relation of lateral incisors and canines to eye color. 


Color determination; intraoral spectrophotometer; eye color; tooth color; skin color



ten Bosch JJ, Coops JC: Tooth color reflectance as related to light scattering and enamel hardness. J Dent Res. 1995; 74:374.

Vaarkamp J, ten Bosch JJ,Verdonschot EH: Propagation of light through human dental enamel and dentine. Caries Res. 1995; 29:8.

Houwink B: The index of refraction of dental enamel apatite. Br Dent J. 1974,137:472.

Clark EB. An analysis of tooth color. J Am Dent A. 1931; 18: 093.

Sproull RC. Color matching in dentistry. Part I. J Pros Dent 1973; 29: 416-424.

McLean JW. The science and art of dental ceramics.Vol 1: The nature of dental ceramics and their clinical use. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing Co Inc.; 1979.

Preston JD, Bergen SF. Color science and dental art. St. Louis: CV Mosby; 1980.

Preston JD. Current status of shade selection and color matching. Quint Int 1985; 1: 47-58.

Seluk WL,LaLonde TD. Esthetics and communication with a custom shade guide. Dent Clin Nth Am 1985; 29: 741-51.

Sproull RC, Color matching problems in dentistry. In: ISCC Subcommittee for Problem 35 Report. Color Res Appl 1976; 1:134-136.

Lemire PA, Burk AAS. Color in dentistry. Hartford: JM Ney Co.; 1975.

Dosumu Oluwale O and Dosumu Elizabeth B: Relationsheep between tooth color, skin, color and age. Afr. J. Biomed.2010; 9-14.

KristekZorić E,ŽagarM,KnezovićZlatarić D. Influence of Gender on the Patient’s Assessment of Restorations on the Upper Anterior Teeth. ActaStomatol Croat. 2014;48:33-41.

O’Brien W J,Hammendinger H,Boenke KM, Linger JB, Groh CL. Color distribution of three regions of extracted human teeth. Dent mater. 1997; 13: 179 -85.

Jahangairi L, Reinhardt SB, Mehra RV, Matheson PM. Relationship between tooth shade value and skin color: An observational study. J Prosthet Dent. 2002; 87:149–152.

Millar A, Long J, Cole J, Staffanou R. Shade selection and laboratory communication. Quintessence Int.1993; 24: 305-309.

Sykora O. Fabrication of a posterior shade guide for removable partial dentures. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry.1993; 50: 287-288.

Otuyemi OD,Ogunyinka A,Dosumu O et al. Perceptions of dental aesthetics in the United States and Nigeria. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol.1998; 26:418-20.

Veeraganta SK, Savadi RC, Baroudi K, Nassani MZ. J Indian Prosthodont Soc.Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study. 2015; 15:138-41.

Richardson ME. By their teeth shall ye know them. BDJ. 2001; 191:459-464.

Lagouvardos PE, Tsamali I, Papadopoulou C, Polyzois G. Tooth, skin, hair and eye colour interrelationships in Greek young adults. Odontology. 2013; 101:75–83.

Cho BH, Lim YK, Lee YK. Comparison of the color of natural teeth measured by a colorimeter and Shade Vision System.Dent Mater. 2007; 23:1307-12.

Paul SJ, Peter A,Rodoni L,Pietrobon N. Conventional visual vs spectrophotometric shade taking for porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns: a clinical comparison. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent.2004; 24:222-31.

Lehmann KM,Devigus A,Igiel C,Wentaschek S,Azar MS,Scheller H. Repeatability of color-measuring devices. Eur J Esthet Dent. 2011; 6:428-35.

Chu SJ,Trushkowsky RD,Paravina RD. Dental color matching instruments and systems. Review of clinical and research aspects. J Dent. 2010;38:2-16.

Paravina RD, Powers JM. Esthetic Color Training in Dentistry. 2004; St Louis, Mosby.

Elamin HO,Abubakr NH, Ibrahim YE. Identifying the tooth shade in group of patients using Vita Easyshade.Eur J Dent. 2015; 9:213-7.

Cristina Gómez-Polo,Miguel Gómez-Polo,Juan Antonio MartínezVázquez de Parga,Alicia CelemínViñuela. Study of the most frequent natural tooth color in the Spanish population using spectrophotometry. J AdvProsthodont. 2015; 7:413-422.

Goodkind RJ.Schwabacher WB: Use of fiber-optic colorimeter for in vivo color measurement of 2830 anterior teeth. J Prosthet Dent. 1987; 58:535.

Hassel AJ, Nitschke I, Dreyhaupt J, Wegener I, Rammelsberg P, Hassel JC. Predicting tooth color from facial features and gender: results from a white elderly cohort.J Prosthet Dent. 2008;99:101-6.

Satheesh B, Haralur, Ahmed Mohammed Dibas, Nabil Abdullah Almelhiand Dhafer Ali Al-Qahtani. The Tooth and Skin Colour Interrelationship across the Different Ethnic Groups International Journal of Dentistry, 2014.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.