Nuran Özyemişci Cebeci, Seçil Karakoca Nemli, Senem Ünver


Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare oral health behaviors of dental students in graduate and doctoral programs (PhD students) and to determine the effects of parental education and occupation on these behaviors.

Materials and Methods: A questionnaire about oral health behaviors was carried out in a Faculty of Dentistry in Ankara, Turkey. A total of 629 questionnaires were distributed, 528 dental and 101 PhD students responded. Parental education and occupation were also recorded. Data was statistically analyzed.

Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups with respect to frequency of replacing toothbrush (p=0.001), use of electric toothbrush (p<0.001), frequency of brushing (p<0.001), amount of water used to rinse mouth (p<0.001), toothpaste selection criteria (p<0.001), use of dental floss (p<0.001),  amount of toothpaste used for brushing (p=0.018), frequency of taking professional care (p<0.001) and sugar consumption (p<0.001). PhD group showed more favorable outcomes for these behaviors except toothpaste selection criteria. Parental education and occupation were correlated with higher frequencies of flossing and mouth rinsing.

Conclusion: The outcomes of this study show that the self-reported quality of overall oral health behavior is more pronounced in PhD students than those in graduate programs, with the exceptions of behaviors regarding duration of brushing, criteria of choosing toothpaste and use of oral rinse. Present dental curriculum in the universities should be revisited with respect to oral health attitudes. This study also implied that educational and occupational status of parents had little effect on oral health behavior of the students including use of dental floss and mouth rinse. 



Oral health; tooth brushing; education; professional; parents

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17096/jiufd.80220


Frazier PJ. Public health education and promotion for caries prevention: The role of dental schools. J Public Health Dent 1983;43(1):28-42.

Gallagher EB, Moody PM. Dentists and the oral health behavior of patients: A sociological perspective. J Behav Med 1981;4(3):283-295.

Khami MR, Virtanen JI, Jafarian M, Murtomaa H. Prevention-oriented practice of iranian senior dental students. Eur J Dent Educ 2007;11(1):48-53.

Brusokaite J, Januleviciute I, Kukleris A, Zekonis G. Evaluation of dental health of dental students at kaunas university of medicine. Stomatologija, Baltic Dent Maxillofac J 2003;5(4):133-136.

Cortes FJ, Nevot C, Ramon JM, Cuenca E. The evolution of dental health in dental students at the university of barcelona. J Dent Educ 2002;66(10):1203-1208.

Al-Omari QD, Hamasha AA. Gender-specific oral health attitudes and behavior among dental students in Jordan. J Contemp Dent Pract 2005;6(1):107-114.

Dagli RJ, Tadakamadla S, Dhanni C, Duraiswamy P, Kulkarni S. Self reported dental health attitude and behavior of dental students in India. J Oral Sci 2008;50(3):267-272.

Freeman R. The psychology of dental patient care. 5. The determinants of dental health attitudes and behaviours. Br Dent J 1999;187(1):15-18.

Umsan S, Bhat SS, Sargod SS. Oral health knowledge and behaviour of clinical medical, dental and paramedical students in Mangolore. J Oral Health Comm Dent 2007;1(3):46-48.

Al-Omiri MK, Barghout NH, Shaweesh AI, Malkawi Z. Level of education and gender-specific self-reported oral health behavior among dental students. Oral Health Prev Dent


Al-Wahadni AM, Al-Omiri MK, Kawamura M. Differences in self-reported oral health behavior between dental students and dental technology/dental hygiene students in Jordan. J Oral Sci 2004;46(3):191-197.

Doğan B. Differences in oral health behavior and attitudes between dental and nursing students. Journal of Marmara University Institute of Health Sciences 2013;3(1):34-40.

Khami MR, Virtanen JI, Jafarian M, Murtomaa H. Oral health behaviour and its determinants amongst iranian dental students. Eur J Dent Educ 2007;11(1):42-47.

Komabayashi T, Kawamura M, Kim KJ, Wright FA, Declerck D, Goias Mdo C, Hu DY, Honkala E, Levy G, Kalwitzki M, Polychronopoulou A, Yip KH, Eli I, Kinirons MJ, Petti S, Srisilapanan P, Kwan SY, Centore LS. The hierarchical cluster analysis of oral health attitudes and behaviour using the hiroshima university--dental behavioural inventory (hu-dbi) among final year dental students in 17 countries. Int Dent J 2006;56(5):310-316.

Komabayashi T, Kwan SY, Hu DY, Kajiwara K, Sasahara H, Kawamura M. A comparative study of oral health attitudes and behaviour using the hiroshima university - dental behavioural inventory (hu-dbi) between dental students in Britain and China. J Oral Sci 2005;47(1):1-7.

Messer LB, Calache H. Oral health attitudes and behaviours of final-year dental students. Eur J Dent Educ 2012;16(3):144-155.

Neeraja R, Kayalvizhi G, Sangeetha P. Oral health attitudes and behavior among a group of dental students in Bangalore, India. Eur J Dent 2011;5(2):163-167.

Peker I, Alkurt MT. Oral health attitudes and behavior among a group of turkish dental students. Eur J Dent 2009;3(1):24-31.

Peker K, Uysal O, Bermek G. Dental training and changes in

oral health attitudes and behaviors in istanbul dental students. J Dent Educ 2010;74(9):1017-1023.

Polychronopoulou A, Kawamura M. Oral self-care behaviours: Comparing Greek and Japanese dental students. Eur J Dent Educ 2005;9(4):164-170.

Rahman B, Kawas SA. The relationship between dental health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students in the United Arab Emirates. Eur J Dent 2013;7(1):22-27.

Rong WS, Wang WJ, Yip HK. Attitudes of dental and medical students in their first and final years of undergraduate study to oral health behaviour. Eur J Dent Educ 2006;10(3):178-184.

Sharda AJ, Shetty S. A comparative study of oral health knowledge, attitude and behaviour of first and final year dental students of Udaipur City, Rajasthan, India. Int J Dent Hyg 2008;6(4):347-353.

Tseveenjav B, Vehkalahti M, Murtomaa H. Time and cohort changes in preventive practice among mongolian dental students. Eur J Dent Educ 2003;7(4):177-181.

Yildiz S, Dogan B. Self reported dental health attitudes and behaviour of dental students in Turkey. Eur J Dent 2011;5(3):253-259.

Badovinac A, Bozic D, Vucinac I, Vesligaj J, Vrazic D, Plancak D. Oral health attitudes and behavior of dental students at the university of Zagreb, Croatia. J Dent Educ 2013;77(9):1171-1178.

Ulu O, Doğruer I, Usta UA, Dörter C. Oral hygiene behaviour change in dentistry students during dental education. J Istanbul Uni Fac Dent 2012;46(3):29-42.

De Wandel D, Maes L, Labeau S, Vereecken C, Blot S. Behavioral determinants of hand hygiene compliance in intensive care units. Am J Crit Care 2010;19(3):230-239.

Larson EL, Bryan JL, Adler LM, Blane C. A multifaceted approach to changing handwashing behavior. Am J Infect Control 1997;25(1):3-10.

Cutter J, Jordan S. Uptake of guidelines to avoid and report exposure to blood and body fluids. J Adv Nurs 2004;46(4):441-452.

Gammon J, Morgan-Samuel H, Gould D. A review of the evidence for suboptimal compliance of healthcare practitioners to standard/universal infection control precautions. J Clin Nurs 2008;17(2):157-167.

Godin G, Naccache H, Morel S, Ebacher MF. Determinants of nurses' adherence to universal precautions for venipunctures. Am J Infect Control 2000;28(5):359-364.

Zadik Y, Galor S, Lachmi R, Proter N. Oral self-care habits of dental and healthcare providers. Int J Dent Hyg 2008;6(4):354-360.

Maltby J, Paterson K, Day L, Jones C, Kinnear H, Buchanan H. Social ranking effects on tooth-brushing behaviour. Br J Health Psychol 2016;21(2):374-388.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.